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Education Resources

Morale and Motivation Theory of Management

Friday, March 6, 2009

Morale is internal feeling and it is inspired by the environment. Motivation comes from enthusiasm, zeal, confidence in individuals or groups that they will be able to cope with the tasks assigned to them.

Morale and Motivation Objectives:

Meaning and importance of morale

Relationship between morale and productivity

Methods of measurement of employee morale

Distinguish between morale and motivation

Steps in motivation

Ways of motivating the employees

Major theories of motivation

From one of the MBA Books MB 0027 a theory comes in my mind which has been proposed by Professor Ralph C. Davis about morale, “Good organizational morale is a condition in which individuals and groups voluntarily make a reasonable subordination of their personnel objectives of their organization.”

Another theory of morale comes from B Flippo morale is, “a mental condition or attitude of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to co-operate. Good morale is evidenced by employee enthusiasm, voluntary conformance with regulations and orders, and a willingness to co-operate with others in the accomplishment of an organization’s objectives. Poor morale is evinced by surliness, insubordination, a feeling of discouragement and dislike of the job, company and associates.”

On the importance of morale we can say that it is the realization of common objectives which refers to the working of an individual. Morale is also depends on the reality and material background. So, it depends upon the relations between expectations and reality.

There are some scales on which we can measure employee’s Morale:

The supervisor/executive’s impressions

The guided interview

The unguided interview

A combination of the guided and unguided interview

An analysis of company records

The listening-in process

The questionnaire

A combination of any of the foregoing methods

Morale can be improved in a specific organization and in a specific environment:

Creation of whole jobs

Job enrichment

Building Responsibility into a job

Modifying the work environment

Flexing Working hours


Rotation of Jobs


These are the perception on which we can develop a strong feeling for the morale in a person to do that.

Motivation is also an internal feeling like morale but it is not consistence like morale. About the motivation Michael Jucius has defined, “motivation is an act of stimulating someone to get a desired course of action.”

In the theories of motivation Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory comes at first. According to Maslow’s hierarchy theory it is known as an individual’s motivations as a predetermined order of needs which he strives to satisfy. His model of hierarchy of needs indicates satisfaction of human basic needs.

Another theory comes with McGregor’s which is known as theory of X and theory of Y (and theory of Z).

In the end of the chapter we can say the best results come when an organization has both high morale and high motivation.


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