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Education Resources

Motivation - MBA Book

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Motivation known as internal condition which derives from desire and needs. About the motivation Stephen P Robbins says, “The willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditional by the effort ability to satisfy some individual needs.”

Another theory about motivation Fred Luthans said in 1986, “a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.”

Objective of Motivation:

In this chapter we have define some objective for motivation that are:

Process of Motivation

Theories of Motivation

Motivation Tools

Now, we will discuss about process of motivation. Motivation derives from needs and desire and it satisfy our goal and relief.

Needs: It is want or desire in normal words. Needs can be also defined as primary or secondary, depends upon situation.

In the theories of “Motivation” we 1st study about Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory which was proposed by Abraham Maslow. The theory known as “Hierarchy of need theory” also.

Abraham Maslow defines his theory into five levels which are:

Physiological Needs

Security/Safety Needs

Social Needs

Esteem Needs

Self-Actualization Needs

Maslow defines these needs in a arranged way that is why its name is Hierarchy of need theory. It has been arranged by importance of hierarchical manner.

In the Motivation Tools we include some motivating factors which can be:

Job Security

Sympathetic Help

Personal Loyalty to Employees

Interesting work

Good Working Conditions

Tactful Discipline

Good Wages

Promotion and Growth in a Firm

Feeling of being in on things

Full Appreciation of work done etc.

These can be motivation tools by which we can motivate a people, in a organization an employee, working environment and our surroundings also.

Types of Motivation:

Here we can discuss about types of motivation which we can use to motivate a people who is related to us. There are some motivation types:

Achievement Motivation

Affiliation Motivation

Competence Motivation

Power Motivation

Attitude Motivation etc.

These are type of motivation which let us know about motivation situation.

Motivation is a part of OB (Organisation Behaviour). Motivation change and modified OB also. In the Organisation Behavour change known as MBO (Management by Objectives).

As a Motivation tools MBO is a systematic and organized approach and it allows management to focus about achievable goals and resources.

Objectives of MBO:

In the Objective of MBO we can read by MBA book these:





And Time Limited

All these explore the MBO objectives and let us MBA students about motivation which is the part of MBO.

To change or modified employees behaviour we arrange team training and employee involvement which let us know about employees behaviour modification.

Another theory about “Motivation” comes from Hertzbeg. Hertzberg gives “two-factor theory”. The theory is known as motivation-hygiene theory also. It was developed by Hertzberg in 1959.

Hertzberg develop his theory as Hygiene Factors or Extrinsic factor and another is Motivator factors or Intrinsic factor.

In the Hygiene factors there are some examples which deal:


Company Policy

Working Condition


Interpersonal Relationship


In the Intrinsic factor these involves:



Work It


Growth and Advancement

Challenging Job

All these factors let to know us about the motivation factors which are based on two-factor theory.

After some time criticism of Hertzberg Two-Factor Theory came in light because in the theory there are some errors which was founded by R.J House and L.A Wigdor. The errors of two-factor theory were:

Two-Factor theory is based on limited methodology.

Hertzberg’s theory based on situation which is not scientific.

Two-Factor theory is only related to job satisfaction which can be not a theory in real sense.

It ignores situational variables.

Hertzerg think about satisfaction and productivity by himself but in his theory there are only satisfaction not productivity.

By the End of Hertzerg’s theory in future came another theory which was Alderfer-ERG theory of motivation.

Alderfer developed his theory in 1972 which was known as ERG theory. It was also in criticism of Maslow “Motivation” theory.

Alderfer theory mean as:

E = Existence

R = Relatedness

G = Growth

Theory of ERG is similar to Maslow’s theory. Both theories define hierarchy of needs. But here Alderfer theory differs from Maslow in two major ways that are:

Individual regress to lower level if need remain unsatisfied at lower levels.

If the need satisfy, May continuous to dominant.

We know needs and desire create motivation. So, there is need theory also which is proposed by McClelland.

McClelland theory of needs announced that needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experience.

Motivating Tools in a Firm:

Today, when there is a chance to growth career for employee, a firm should also give them a chance to explore their career.

There are some tools by which we can give some satisfaction to our employees:

Job Enlargement

Job Enrichment

Job Rotation

These are the best practice by which can satisfy our employee and can motivate them in right direction also.

Summary of “Motivation” Chapter

Motivation is the process of explore goal behaviour in right direction. Motivation creates need and desire also. All these experience you can get from SMU MBA books also which is written by many reference books. I am writing here also after reading this book but all these writing based on my own experience.


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