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Group Behaviour – MBA Book

Monday, October 27, 2008

Introduction of Group Behaviour:

Group formation is created by more than one people for common interest. It is defined as two or more people interaction to achieve particular objectives.

According to Schien Group Behavior is, “Any number of people who interact with one another and are psychologically aware of one another and perceive themselves to be a group”. The theory was developed in 1972.

According to Adair theory which was proposed in 1986, “A group has common needs relating to task, group and individuals and each group develops its own “group personality”.

Objective of Group Behaviour Chapter:

Concept of Group

Types of Group

Group Formation

Characteristics of Group

Group Structures

These are topics of group behvaiour chapter which we have to study and elaborate this in our experience.

About the concept of group I have already mentioned it in introduction of group. So, from here I will start to write about “Types of Group”.

Groups can be divided into two parts – formal or informal. Formal group is well design and well define for an organization structure.

Formal groups run on command on group, task of group and with committee. Formal groups have some characteristics which should be followed by any formal group. These are:

It meets a required goal

It has defined structure

It is Problem solving group

It has some designation and work assignments for its member.

It has well defined norms.

It has specified goals and deadlines.

After the formal groups we can discuss on informal groups. In an organization both informal and formal groups work actively. But informal group don’t take responsibility like formal group.

Informal groups bring people together based on personal friendship and interest to the organization.

In informal group we can include – friendship group, interest group, reference groups, membership groups and cliques.

Stages of group development:

Everything has development process. So, group has also some process to develop its. According to Tuckman group development has five-stage. The theory was proposed in 1965.

The five stages of group developments are:






Forming is initial formed group.

Storming is the stage of inter-group conflicts for group.

Norming is the stage of developing close relationship within group.

Performing is the stage of function within a group.

Adjourning is the stage of permanent for any group.

After this, we should discuss about characteristics of groups. In the group characteristics we can involve some aspects that are:

Role Structures: It defines the group member’s roles. It develops on individual skills. Personal roles can be explained as:

Role Overload

Role Conflict

Role Ambiguity

Now, there are group roles also which can be explained as:

Work roles

Informer roles

Maintenance roles

Group Roles can be defined in two ways – task roles and maintenance.

In the task roles we can include:


Information seeker or giver

Opinion seeker or giver






Procedural Technician


Like these in the maintenance roles we can includes these:





Standard Setter



After all these discussion, now we can discuss about group structures. Group is not a mob at all. It is well organized formation of individuals to achieve goals.

For a group these structures can be followed:

Leadership: it is main roles of a group and leadership has major responsibilities.

Norms: it is vision to look the world.

Status: It is social aspect which is recognized by people.

Size: a group has different size but depends upon group goals. But normally it should be from 3-13 but for high quality it should be 3-5.

Composition: a group is a collaboration of many people and many targeted goals. So, in a group there should be composition of knowledge and skills.

Some Techniques for Group Decision Making:

Decision making is main task of a group. To take decision in group there are some techniques which is known as:

Brainstorming: it is known as generating alternatives.

Normal Group Technique (NGT): It is known as very good technique because in this technique a group meets formally but does not restrict independent thinking.

Delphi Technique: the technique has great value because it has ability to generate a number of independent judgments without the involvement of members face-to-face.

Lastly, we can say define group behaviour in short as group ethics. It is not individual propaganda but it is an inter-dependence propaganda however it satisfies individual needs and goals also.

Motivation - MBA Book

Saturday, October 25, 2008

Motivation known as internal condition which derives from desire and needs. About the motivation Stephen P Robbins says, “The willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditional by the effort ability to satisfy some individual needs.”

Another theory about motivation Fred Luthans said in 1986, “a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.”

Objective of Motivation:

In this chapter we have define some objective for motivation that are:

Process of Motivation

Theories of Motivation

Motivation Tools

Now, we will discuss about process of motivation. Motivation derives from needs and desire and it satisfy our goal and relief.

Needs: It is want or desire in normal words. Needs can be also defined as primary or secondary, depends upon situation.

In the theories of “Motivation” we 1st study about Maslow Hierarchy of Needs theory which was proposed by Abraham Maslow. The theory known as “Hierarchy of need theory” also.

Abraham Maslow defines his theory into five levels which are:

Physiological Needs

Security/Safety Needs

Social Needs

Esteem Needs

Self-Actualization Needs

Maslow defines these needs in a arranged way that is why its name is Hierarchy of need theory. It has been arranged by importance of hierarchical manner.

In the Motivation Tools we include some motivating factors which can be:

Job Security

Sympathetic Help

Personal Loyalty to Employees

Interesting work

Good Working Conditions

Tactful Discipline

Good Wages

Promotion and Growth in a Firm

Feeling of being in on things

Full Appreciation of work done etc.

These can be motivation tools by which we can motivate a people, in a organization an employee, working environment and our surroundings also.

Types of Motivation:

Here we can discuss about types of motivation which we can use to motivate a people who is related to us. There are some motivation types:

Achievement Motivation

Affiliation Motivation

Competence Motivation

Power Motivation

Attitude Motivation etc.

These are type of motivation which let us know about motivation situation.

Motivation is a part of OB (Organisation Behaviour). Motivation change and modified OB also. In the Organisation Behavour change known as MBO (Management by Objectives).

As a Motivation tools MBO is a systematic and organized approach and it allows management to focus about achievable goals and resources.

Objectives of MBO:

In the Objective of MBO we can read by MBA book these:





And Time Limited

All these explore the MBO objectives and let us MBA students about motivation which is the part of MBO.

To change or modified employees behaviour we arrange team training and employee involvement which let us know about employees behaviour modification.

Another theory about “Motivation” comes from Hertzbeg. Hertzberg gives “two-factor theory”. The theory is known as motivation-hygiene theory also. It was developed by Hertzberg in 1959.

Hertzberg develop his theory as Hygiene Factors or Extrinsic factor and another is Motivator factors or Intrinsic factor.

In the Hygiene factors there are some examples which deal:


Company Policy

Working Condition


Interpersonal Relationship


In the Intrinsic factor these involves:



Work It


Growth and Advancement

Challenging Job

All these factors let to know us about the motivation factors which are based on two-factor theory.

After some time criticism of Hertzberg Two-Factor Theory came in light because in the theory there are some errors which was founded by R.J House and L.A Wigdor. The errors of two-factor theory were:

Two-Factor theory is based on limited methodology.

Hertzberg’s theory based on situation which is not scientific.

Two-Factor theory is only related to job satisfaction which can be not a theory in real sense.

It ignores situational variables.

Hertzerg think about satisfaction and productivity by himself but in his theory there are only satisfaction not productivity.

By the End of Hertzerg’s theory in future came another theory which was Alderfer-ERG theory of motivation.

Alderfer developed his theory in 1972 which was known as ERG theory. It was also in criticism of Maslow “Motivation” theory.

Alderfer theory mean as:

E = Existence

R = Relatedness

G = Growth

Theory of ERG is similar to Maslow’s theory. Both theories define hierarchy of needs. But here Alderfer theory differs from Maslow in two major ways that are:

Individual regress to lower level if need remain unsatisfied at lower levels.

If the need satisfy, May continuous to dominant.

We know needs and desire create motivation. So, there is need theory also which is proposed by McClelland.

McClelland theory of needs announced that needs are acquired or learned on the basis of our life experience.

Motivating Tools in a Firm:

Today, when there is a chance to growth career for employee, a firm should also give them a chance to explore their career.

There are some tools by which we can give some satisfaction to our employees:

Job Enlargement

Job Enrichment

Job Rotation

These are the best practice by which can satisfy our employee and can motivate them in right direction also.

Summary of “Motivation” Chapter

Motivation is the process of explore goal behaviour in right direction. Motivation creates need and desire also. All these experience you can get from SMU MBA books also which is written by many reference books. I am writing here also after reading this book but all these writing based on my own experience.

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