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Education Resources

MBA Results of Sikkim Manipal University

Monday, September 29, 2008

MBA results has been already declared by SMU on 6th, September, 2008 for July examination. Now, you can maintain all the things on the web along with results like- mail, prospectus, exam dates, forms and applications etc.

I have already told that I am doing my MBA from future point in my previous post. So, to see the my results I visit my future point site Here in left navigation iI got student login with Sikkim Manipal University hyper link. Here all the students can enter their Roll Number to login on the site and passwords are also same – Roll Number. After entering your roll number the site will redirect to SMU panel where your profile and results all the things will be displayed.

I think like this all the centers sites have student login option where students can login to view their results. My 1st semester results is not satisfactory and I got “C” Grade.

MBA Book – Perception

Sunday, September 21, 2008

Perception is the primary process of evaluation. It is way to understand our surroundings and ourselves. As an MBA in an organization perception study is necessary to understand employees activates. Perception can be process of interpreting information about another person or another organization. It is our sensory experience and by it we evaluate thought, behaviour, organization and a situation in initial stage of our thought.

Perception Objectives are:

Perception process

Factors influencing perception

Barriers to perception

Attribution: Internal and External perception

Kelley’s attribution theory

Attribution Biases

Perception process moves from selecting, starting and end on interpreting information.

Factors which influence perception are: perceiver, Object or being perceived and in the context of the situation in which the perception is made.

Barriers to perception are like burdensome whatever others want to perceiving and interpreting.

“Attribution refers to how a person explains the cause of another’s or his or her own behaviour,” defined by SMU book.

Internal attributions: This is something within the individual’s control.

External Attributions: it means something is outside the individual’s control.

Kelly’s Attribution Theory: it shows that attribution is a perceptual process. Kelly has proposed attribution theory, “Individuals make attribution based on information gathered in the form f three informational cues – consensus, distinctiveness and consistency.”

Theoreticians proposed that attributions can be affected by two very common errors – fundamental attribution error and self-serving bias. In these two attribution errors can be cultural errors.

In the last we can say perception can be defined as personal primary sensory to evaluate a person, organization and situations.

MBA Book – Personality & Emotions

Personality has many definitions in general opinions or in a psychologist opinions but personality words origin is from Latin word “personare” which meaning is “to speak through”. In the MBA book personality is defined as “relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behaviour.”

In this chapter we understand about:

Term of Personality

Determinants of Personality

Various Theories of Personality

Defence Mechanism

Theories of Emotion

About the personality I have already explained that there are no limitations of its theory. Here is one of the theoreticians, Gluck writes about personality, “Personality is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences his or her behaviour toward goal achievement. Each person has unique way of protecting these states.”

Determinants of personality: depends on biological, cultural, family, social and situational factors.

Biological factors are related to heredity, brain, biofeedback, physical features etc. Like that cultural factors, family factors, social factors and situational factors are the determinants of personality.

There are four theories of Personality:

Intrapsychic Theory: the theory was developed by Sigmund Freud and it emphasizes on unconscious determinate of behaviour. It runs among three elements of personality- id, ego and superego.

Type Theories of Personalities: The theory classifies the label or categories of people. The theory comes from people body types, thinking types, judgment types etc.

Trait Theories: The theories include five factors- Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Trait theories can be defined in short term as OCEAN.

For the Trait personality theories some theoretician has also defined its. In the series Gordon Allport’s Personality Traits are on top. According to the Gordon Allport’s personality theory, “Personality traits are real entities, physically located somewhere in the brain.”

He defines his theory mainly in two parts:

Common Traits: the theory share or hold in common with most others in our own culture.

Individual traits: According to Allport, Individual traits have three elements- cardinal traits, central traits and secondary traits.

Reymond Cattell’s 16 Personality factors theory: Known as 16 P.F Test.

Unconditional Positive Regard Theory: It is developed by Rogers. He believes in therapist and thinks that unconditional positive regard gives the therapist.

Personality Characteristics in Organisation: As a manager if you going to hire in an organization, you would have to learn as much as possible about personality in order to understand their employees. Individual behaviour can be traced by these personality characteristics in an organization:

Locus of Control




Positive/Negative Affect

Risk Taking

Type of Personality

In the book MBA which is provided by SMU defined emotion, “Emotion is defined as subjective feelings accompanied by physiological changes and usually associated with the change in perception, thinking and behaviour.

Many theoreticians have also defined emotions which are:

James Lange Theory of Emotion: James defines emotion theory that felt emotion occur of the bodily changes.

Cannon-Bard Emotion Theory: He says, “Felt emotion and bodily reaction are quite independent of each other.”

Emotion shows facial expressions as:








Acceptance etc.

In the last we can say personality and emotion are guided by each other. And both are developed in a situational environment. Personality and emotion in an organization should be rational for the growth of organization as a manager.

MBA Book – Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

Saturday, September 20, 2008

In this chapter, objective of MBA students are:

Concept of Values

Types of Values

Analysis of Attitudes formation, Component of Attitudes and Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Attitudes in Organisation

Job Satisfaction

Ethics in Organisation

Values decide what is right and what is wrong and it is inspired by moral.

Formation of values are rely on family, organization, school, religious, institutes and self justification.

About types of values we can say there are – theoretical, economical, aesthetic, social, political, religious etc. values which depends on person’s environment.

Attitude is psychological aspects which remain a person inside. Attitudes are also like values and come from person’s environment. Attitude develops thorough experience also.

Components of Attitudes:

Cognitive Component: The theory reflects a person’s perception or beliefs.

Affective Component: The theory reflects person’s feelings that result from his or her beliefs about a person, object or situation.

Behavioural Component: The behaviour component of an attitude refers to behave in a certain way towards an object or person.

Formation of Attitudes is also like values formation and it comes from family, organization, school, institutes etc.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory: The theory was proposed by Leon Festinger, in 1957. According to the theory people change their attitudes and behaviour to re-establish consistency which motivates by unpleasant state of arousal.

According to the book attitudes and behaviour are depends on five things:

Attitude Specificity

Attitude Relevance

Timing of Measurement

Personality Factors

Social Constraints

To change attitude a person is a very hard task but through some massages attitude can be changed like politician.

In an organization commitment towards organization depends on attitudes. A manager can develop attitudes in employee’s loyalty towards organization to increase job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction and organizational commitment is depends on attitudes that can be satisfied by a manager to improve employee’s attitudes satisfaction.

Attitudes in an organization are most important things because it affects work behaviour directly or indirectly in organization. If an employee is satisfied then his commitment towards organization and attitudes towards organization will be in favour of organization.

Ethics in an organization is developed by managers. Ethics are standards of conducts or moral judgment which is used by managers in the favour of organization to handle business very effectively.

Ethics are defined in three ways: Immoral, Moral and Amoral. Unethical behaviour can affect individuals, work teams and the organization so managers should be ethical in terms of organization and employees.

In the last we can say values and attitudes both are tinged with moral and lead to job satisfaction with ethical management.

MBA Books – Foundation of Organisational Behaviour: Individual Behaviour

Tuesday, September 16, 2008

In this chapter, we will discuss about organizational behaviour as an individual. How to behave in an organization as an individual? In an organization when we work for productivity and growth as a manger, we care every individual employee and their goal derives to the company.

Objective of this chapter:

Biographical Character of Employee

Different types of abilities in an Employee

Concept of Learning

Theories of Learning

In the Basic Model of Individual Behaviour we learn about person environment, their attitudes, heredity, skills, needs, personality and knowledge then we able to know about individual behaviour in an organization and their consequences towards organizations productivity.

Biographical Character of an employee depends on age, gender, martial status and loyalty with an organization.

Abilities in an individual show his work capacity. Broadly, abilities are divided into two parts in the MBA book – intellectual abilities which occurs intelligence test, aptitude test, spatial aptitude etc.

Second are physical abilities which are related to individual stamina, dexterity, strength and characteristics.

In the concept of learning theory there are many definitions by theoretician like Stephen P Robbins, Munn N.L and Steers and porter. But in my sense learning change behaviour and give new things knowledge. Learning never related to only degree and university it is beyond from book also.

Now, for theories of learning there are about four learning theories in the MBA book chapter-

Classical Conditioning theory – The theory had been developed by Ivan Pavlov. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian physiology at the institute of Experimental Medicine in St. Petersburg. The theory was published in his book “Conditioned Reflexes”. Classical Conditioning theory is basically for modifying behaviour by conditioned stimulus.

Operant Conditioning Theory: The theory had been developed by B. F. Skinner in the critique of Pavlov Classical Conditioning theory. Operant Conditioning theory argues that behaviour is a function of its consequences.

Cognitive Learning Theory: the theory focus on mainly unobservable change in mental knowledge which is defined by the MBA books in the chapter. Further, it refers to individual’s ideas, thoughts, knowledge, interpretation and understanding of individual’s environment.

Social Learning Theory: Simply we can know about it that it is learning from social context.


The organizational behaviour and individual behaviour is the part of management. As an MBA we can justify individual goals and can adjust them towards the organization.

MBA Books – Management Process and Organization Behavior

Monday, September 15, 2008

The book has been provided by Sikkim Manipal University for MBA Students (Distance Education) in the 1st semester there are six books. The 1st book is “Management Process and Organization Behavior”. The book is for Master in Business Administration degree and the management book code is “MB 0022” for SMU distance education students.

There are 10 chapters in the book. I am writing about 1st chapter “Organisational Behaviour”.

The chapter defines about management as a creative problem moving process. Management has some managerial features which are – organizing, staffing, leading and controlling. Every manager should be these skills to handle management situation.

Organisational behavour objectives are:

Functions of a Manager

Skills of a Manager

Roles of Manager

Organisational behavour as a discipline

Challenges and Opportunities for Organisational Behaviour

Functions of a manager are dependent on management environment. According to theoretician there are many definitions also: Neuman and summer has divided into four parts as a management: planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.

Henri Fayol, define as – planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling in five parts.

Luther Gulik gives a new theory of management - POSDCORB. POSDCORB define management as – planning, organizing, staffing, directing or leading, coordinating, reporting and budgeting.

These are the theoretician concept about management and manager roles as a MBA.

Skills of manager are also decided by management environment. In the MBA book there are there types of management level has been defined:

Conceptual Skills – The skills is for top lever management which evolve concept about management.

Human Skills- It is middle level of management for a manger to handle human being softly.

Technical Skills- It is Supervisory or we can say low level of management which deals technical aspect of companies.

About the managerial roles there are also three process to get inform, to make decisions etc. that are –

Personal- it provides information to figurehead, leader and liaison.

Informational- it gives process information to monitor, disseminator and spokesperson.

Decisional- it is for using information to entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource Allocator, and negotiator.

Now Organisation Behaviour:

Organisaation Behaviour is the systematic study of actions and attitudes within organizations. It learns how to behave as an individual in group and in organizations. It is the study of dynamic character which acts in various organizations.

Organisation Behaviour is a part of management study. Its challenges in today’s world are:

Study of dynamic workplace

Employee behaviour modification

Employee up gradations

At last I can say management can enhance business growth and it can be back of business.

Objectives of MBA (Distance Education)

MBA is broader aspect of management. We can say, it is mastery in business. Master in Business Administrator is a management of creative problem solving process. Nowadays, MBA course from distance education is for developing knowledge and skills in fundamental management disciplines and management activities.

Objective of MBA course are:

As a MBA the course is aim to develop essential management skills to face and participate in the creative solving problem among global business environment.

The course intended to industrialize, commercialize the cultural background of MBA students to make them professional manager in global companies.

MBA degree for a student can be a professional course to get promotions and manager rank in the big companies but it gives also a skill of management to manage business problem in the favour of companies.

Introductions of MBA from SMU University

Saturday, September 6, 2008

MBA Degree

I have already mentioned in my previous post that I am a student of MBA from SMU (Sikkim Manipal University). Now, I am in second semester. In my view MBA is for managerial skills to handle trade & commerce, services effectively. It is a master degree in Master of Business Administrations. It is aimed at developing knowledge and skills in fundamental management disciplines.

Objectives of MBA: It is aimed to develop essential management skills for participate in the global business environment.

Admission Process: After having complete graduations from any UGC recognized colleges or universities; you are able to appear for the MBA courses in SMU University.

Duration of the Course: There is six semester for Master of Business Administrations for 2 years however you can complete up to 4 years.

Medium of Course: Medium of course is English.

Credit System: There is credit system for MBA course. Credit system is relying on your study of 30 hours for each credit. Every student has to complete at least 68 credits to be awarded Master of Business Administration.

Session Schedule: There are two session from SMU university to appear for MBA courses – Spring Session and Fall Session.

Session - Starting Date - Closing Date

Spring Session - 1st week of February - Last week of July

Fall Session - 1st week of August - Last week of January

Assignments/Project: You have to must write assignments and submit that in your respective learning centers till decided time.

Examination Schedule: In a year two times examination will be held like admission. Spring session examination will be till July/August and for fall session it will be Jan/Feb subsequent year.

Type of Questions: Only objective question will be for the course. There are three types of multiple choice questions (MCQs).

Negative Marking: 25% negative marking will be applied for each wrong answer.

Examinations Hours: There are total 2 hours for 3 types of questions. Part A, Part B and Part C, these are three types of questions. In Part A there is 40 questions and every question has 1 minute to complete it. In Part B there is 20 questions and every question has 1.5 minutes to complete it. In the Part C there are 15 questions and every question has 3 minutes to complete it.

Note: Before starting to complete questions read carefully instructions of solving questions paper. You must have black ball pen and a pencil. By the pen you have to fill up round box properly any one for one question.

Case of Re-Sitting: A student can appear in the Re-sitting examination if he has clashing in a particular subject. He will be allowed the examination with the re-sitting admit card.

Passing Marks: 40% is minimum marks to pass out in your subject. 35% will be from internal assessment and 35% will be from university examination however total aggregate should be minimum 40%.

Grade Systems: Which student will get 70% above marks will get “A” grade with “Excellent” reward. 60-69% will be counted as “B” grade for “Very Good”. 50-59 is for “C” grade which indicate “Good” performance. 40-49% is for “D” grade which is for “Satisfactory” performance. “E” grade is for failure.

Note: Before appearing examination read carefully term & conditions of exam. For ex. – You are not allowed to carry phone.

You will be able to know more about SMU university’s MBA courses from here:

Specialization in MBA from SMU University: Sikkim Manipal University offers some specialization in MBA which is here –

Human Resource Management
Information Systems
Retail Operations

Note: 1st and second semester will be same for all Master of Business Administration students.

Specialisation will be decided after 2nd semester. Now, after this I will write about all MBA’s books which will be related to me.

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